Digital literacy

'Literacy' refers to the ability to read and write. It is often used as a way of measuring the educational performance of a nation or region (e.g. the 'literacy rate' = total number of people who can read and write in a given age group, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that group).

'Digital literacy' means the ability to use information and communication technologies (e.g. the internet) to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information. Digital literacy has become increasingly important in the modern global world as people use social media and other IT to commmunicate.


Read the six sentences and identify keywords and think of any synonyms.

Locate the keywords (or synonym) in the article below and read that section of the text carefully.

Complete the sentences with NO MORE than TWO WORDS from the text.

  1. The goal of CCEducare is to ensure students have greater ________ to good education.

  2. The unique role of CCEducare indicates the potential of _________ for developing education in Myanmar.

  3. The World Bank reports that in the last ten years, __________ has increased dramatically in Myanmar.

  4. Recently, Facebook has been criticised for the high level of _________ on the site.

  5. Many ethnic groups in Myanmar have established __________ in their schools.

  6. One problem with ethnic education systems is that the Myanmar government does not always recognise local educational _________.


As access to the internet grows, a generation of Myanmar students will come of age in an information-based global economy. CCEducare, a company focused on digital education in Myanmar, was founded in 2017 by Chit Thu, one of the winners of this year’s Southeast Asia Women of the Future Awards. Chit Thu says that the company's mission is to improve access to quality education using information technology.

A host of problems continue to impact Myanmar’s education system, including poorly-resourced schools, ongoing humanitarian crises and armed conflict, especially in places like Rakhine, Kachin and Shan states. While CCEducare isn’t part of the country’s public school system, its unique approach shows the promise of private-public partnerships for engaging Myanmar’s youth and furthering the country’s educational goals.

According to a World Bank report, in 2010 under 1% of Myanmar’s population was using the internet, however by May 2020, internet penetration in Myanmar reached at least 40% of the population, or some 22 million people—an impressive number given that about 70% of the population are rural farmers, sometimes with limited access to electricity.

Estimates show that the vast majority of Myanmar’s internet users are on Facebook, a topic of heated discussion in recent years due to the proliferation of fake news. However, the need for digital literacy in Myanmar goes beyond curbing the negative impacts wrought by social media. For Myanmar’s youth to graduate school with the skills needed to compete in a global economy, a well-rounded digital education will be crucial. As Chit Thu states, “Digital literacy has become one of the key abilities required in accessing information and learning 21st Century skills not just in Myanmar, but worldwide.”

In Myanmar, the majority Bamar ethnic group who live along the central Irrawaddy river basin hold much of the political and economic power. Large swaths of land in the far north, west and eastern portions of the county are home to various ethnic groups, often with their own language and identity. In many of these areas a system of ethnic-based curricula has emerged. Some schools in Kachin, Karen and Mon States, for instance, utilize a curriculum that focuses in part on local customs and languages, as opposed to following the strict dictates of the capital’s educational standards.

Some local groups say such alterations are necessary because of the central government’s tendency to ignore minority languages, history and ideas in its official curriculum, but ethnic systems arguably have drawbacks for students due to a lack of state funding, persistent language barriers and uncertain official recognition of non-government accreditation. 

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